On 25th February, a fight between two groups in Hansraj College took a violent turn, with brandishing of violent weapons, posing even more questions about security inside college campuses.

 On 25th February, a fight took place between two groups at the Lovers’ Point in Hansraj College. The altercation consisted of a few students graduated from Delhi University (DU) and students of Satyawati College, DU. Amidst the barrel, one of the students took out a katta (Indian handmade gun) and threatened the other party. However, they soon dispersed, following which, a large number of police personnel were seen in and around the College. Till now, the administration has not commented on the matter, and there is no official notification of an investigation being conducted in this regard.

On 26th February, the students of Hansraj College, collected in order to protest against the administration’s silence on the matter as well as against the rising communalism in the country. The students marched from the hostel gate of the College to the main gate, where they addressed a gathering and talked about the issues plaguing the country.

A student who organised the protest, in conditions of anonymity told DU Beat, “The administration did not even let us make posters inside the college, let alone protest inside. This protest was combined, about college being a safe space, the administration giving us our agency and us being allowed to use it properly and also to throw light on how the country’s being divided for political gains and people are suffering.” “It is also shameful that we’re hosting a fest in such times.” they added.

An important thing to note is that Hansraj College had only recently installed metal detectors at all entrances. This incident also raises some very important questions about how safe college spaces really are, something that college administrative bodies really need to answer.

Feature Image Credits: Saubhagya Saxena for DU Beat

After days of sustained violence in Jaffrabad, Seelampur, and other parts of North East Delhi, students of Delhi University (DU) hold a protest gathering at Arts Faculty to protest against the communal violence perpetrated by in these areas.

On 23rd February 2020, Bhim Army chief Chandrashekhar Azad had called a Bharat Bandh in favour of reservations and against the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA), National Register of Citizen (NRC), and National Population Register (NPR) exercise, in response to which women of Seelampur and Jaffrabad organized a Chakka Jam on the same day. The violence perpetrated by rioters allegedly associated with Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) on the same day, and with the violence sustaining till now, many are calling the riots a state sponsored pogrom of the muslim community and the protestors against CAA, with the police acting as silent bystanders while Delhi burns at the hands of the rioters.

On the morning of 25th February, Students Islamic Organisation of India (SIO) organised a protest gathering against the state sponsored violence in Northeast Delhi. Beginning at 1:30 p.m, the protest had various speakers from the affected areas, students, and performances from DU Theatre societies.

Shaurya, a student pursuing Masters in Sociology from Jawaharlal Nehru University, who had been volunteering at the protest sight for the last month, shared, “ the incidents that took place yesterday are commonly being blamed by the media on one identified gunman who has been arrested, who does belong to the Muslim community. Hence the media is blaming the community as a whole for inciting violence. This is not a riot between two communities, but a orchestrated plan by the RSS and the government acting in collusion with the police force aiding the rioters. The violence began two days ago when Kapil Mishra went to Maujpur- Babarpur with a team of RSS supporters and invited violence and started stone pelting.”

Talking about yesterday, when the levels of violence reached a new level with arson and shootings, he said, “Yesterday, RSS leaders in these areas clearly incited violence, with no police action being taken even after multiple calls being made to them, along with perpetrators being identified on video footage, the police did not act.  A group of concerned citizens from various groups met the Joint Commissioner of police who said that the investigation had not yet led to any conclusive results and refused to send any police to the area. Therefore, it is important to identify that this is  a state orchestrated attack against muslims who are protesting against the NRC-CAA-NPR.”

Feature Image Credits: DU Beat Archives

Prabhanu Kumar Das

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In a shocking incident, an armed,unidentified  person entered the premises of Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI), brandishing a gun and fired at a gathering of anti-CAA protesters, injuring one student.

Protests against the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA) have reverberated throughout the country in recent times, with JNU, a premier institution situated in the Capital, being one of the foremost centres of open dissent. During one such demonstration of dissent, albeit a peaceful one, students of the university had gathered for a march to Rajpath when they were confronted by a man brandishing a handgun. He reportedly shouted slogans – “azaadi chahiye? Ye lo azaadi (You want freedom? Here, have your freedom) before firing shots at the protesters, injuring one student. The victim, Shadab Najar, a student of the Mass Communication and Research Centre (MCRC Department) at the University, was shot in the arm and was immediately rushed for treatment. The shooter, who was later found to be a juvenile, is currently in police custody, while the condition of the victim is stable. 

This chilling incident occurred just a day after Anurag Thakur, a Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Member of Parliament (MP) and Union Minister gave a controversial speech at a rally in Delhi, where he used the words “goli maaro” (shoot them) while speaking against the anti-CAA demonstrations in the country. The Jamia Teachers’ Association, which condemned the incident, blamed the Union Minister’s speech for the incident, stating, “We are convinced that this shooting, which could have been fatal, was the direct result of the call to goli maaro or shoot by an elected Member of Parliament”.  

There was widespread public outrage over the inability of the Delhi Police to prevent the incident, despite being present in large numbers on the scene. A Jamia Professor, on the condition of anonymity, said, “the incident unfolded right in front of the police and they were mute spectators to it.”

Praveer Ranjan, Delhi Police Special Commissioner, rubbished claims of complacency against the force, and asserted that a quick reaction wasn’t possible since the incident happened in a split of a second. Footage of videos shot by eye witnesses show that the Police a few feet from the assailant, stood still, in a defensive position. Delhi Police did manage to catch the shooter, preventing further damage.

The assailant, found to be only seventeen years old, was produced before the Juvenile Justice Board and sent to protective custody for 14 days. Police officials present at the hearing told NDTV that the accused reportedly planned to create the same situation at Shaheen Bagh but ultimately decided to go near the the Jamia campus instead. They also reported that he seemed to have been influenced by inflammatory posts on social media. An investigation into his Facebook posts revealed instances of pro-Hindutva slogans, and photos with firearms. Home Minister Amit Shah called for stringent criminal proceedings against the assailant.

The victim was admitted to AIIMS Trauma Centre and discharged the next day in a stable condition.

Social media stood united in the denouncement of the incident, with pictures of the victim, supportive messages and criticisms against violent elements, and the inertia of the police, being circulated across Twitter, Instagram and Facebook. “Such an incident happening inside a prominent educational institution, especially a day before Martyrs’ Day, endangers the sanctity of education and the integrity of the nation,” opined Arnav Agrawal, a University of Delhi, student residing near the campus.

Feature Image Credits – India Today

Feature Image Caption – Shadab Najar, Student of Jamia Millia Islamia, who was shot by the assailant for protesting.

Araba Kongbam

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Students’ Union President Aishe Ghosh sustains severe head injuries. Students and teachers have been attacked and hostels vandalised. Roads to JNU shut, and streetlights turned off. Read on to find out more.

Students of Jawaharlal Nehru University were attacked by masked men wielding lathis and other weapons. The news broke in the evening when visuals of the JNUSU President Aishe Ghosh went viral. In the video, Ghosh is heard saying “I have been brutally attacked by goons who were masked…I am not even in a condition to talk, I was brutally beaten up”. Gosh sustained head injuries and was soon rushed to the AIIMS Trauma Center. 

Students allege that the masked goons entered Sabarmati, Mahi Mandvi, and Periyar hostels were they attacked students with lathis and vandalized property.
In a video allegedly from the Periyar hostel, women can be heard screaming ‘These people are not from JNU, they have acid with them…they are attacking people.”

Aishe Gosh, the JNUSU president was rushed to AIIMS after sustaining severe head injuries.
Sabarmati Hostel of JNu vandalised

Teachers were allegedly attacked too. Pictures show that Suchitra Sen, a professor at Centre for the Study of Regional Development, JNU was attacked too while she tried to shield students from attackers. 

Screenshots of a WhatsApp group called ‘Friends of RSS’ went viral which showed members discussing the plans to attack the university and the possible ways to enter the campus.

the WhatsApp group where the attack was allegedly planned.

In another video allegedly taken from JNU, chants of ‘Vande Mataram’, and ‘Bharat Mata Ki Jai’ are heard. 

The JNUSU has alleged that the attack was orchestrated by the Akhil Bharatiya Vidhyarthi Parishad (ABVP) which is backed by the Rashtriya Swamyasevak Sangh (RSS) and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). The ABVP has denied its role in the attack and has claimed that students of youth groups affiliated to the Left attacked the ABVP members near the admin block. The ABVP claims that 25 of its members were attacked and 11 of them are apparently missing.

The routes leading to JNU have been shut off by the police, As per sources, students aren’t being allowed to enter or exit the campus unless they’re gravely injured and the streetlights have been turned off. Masked goons with lathis are still freely roaming inside the campus.

Several protesters have gathered at ITO in front of the Delhi Police Headquarters to protest against the incident.

Students were allegedly attacked yesterday too over the indefinite strike over the fee hike, The Students’ Union had called for a registration boycott. Satish Chandra Yadav, the General Secretary of JNUSU was attacked along with many students. Students alleged that the perpetrators of the violence were the Jawaharlal Nehru Teachers’ Federation (JNUTF), and the ABVP.


Note: This is a developing story and will be updated as more information comes in. 

Image Credits: Various

Jaishree Kumar 

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As the Delhi University Students’ Union (DUSU) elections come closer, the SFI (Students’ Federation of India) has come out with allegations of being attacked by the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP).

During the early hours of 26th August, members of the SFI were putting up posters near North Campus’ Vijay Nagar drain. As recalled by eyewitnesses, men in a Scorpio showed up which had posters supporting the ABVP and Sahil Malik, ABVP’s likely presidential candidate for this year. Minutes later, a Swift pulled over and men emerged with hockey sticks and ‘a stick with numerous nails on it’.

The men demanded to the SFI members that they pull the posters down, outnumbered, they obliged. But minutes later, the men attacked the members of SFI.

The three injured activists are Noel, Sumit, and Himanshu. One of them suffered a head injury and the other suffered two fractures in his hands.

DU Beat spoke to Himanshu, who suffered a fracture in his hand. He stated, “We rushed to the hospital in a cab, after that, we went to the Maurice Nagar police station but the case was moved to the Model Town police station.” Himanshu alleges that Sahil Malik was also a part of the gang that attacked him.


Members of SFI display their wounds at the Protest.
The pictures from the day the incident took place. Image Credits: SFI

Anagha, another eyewitness who escaped the attack recalls the ordeal, “There were a lot of females present so we tried to negotiate to not escalate the situation but as soon as we started removing the posters, the men attacked us. Some of us ran to safety. Sumit is currently hospitalised. Noel has a head injury.”

Members of the SFI gathered at the Faculty of Arts on solidarity with organisations like Krantikari Yuva Sangathan (KYS), Pinjra Tod Collective and All India Students’ Association (AISA). The gathering raised slogans against hooliganism, the culture of violence and the ABVP.  The sloganeering continued as people took turns to speak out against the culture of violence in DU.

Not the first attack.

This isn’t the first alleged attack on the SFI. Previously, multiple allegations of SFI members being attacked in the North Campus lanes have surfaced on social media.

On the 17th of May, members of the SFI were attacked by unidentified men, allegedly from the ABVP. On the same at the Faculty of Arts, Sidharth Yadav, Delhi Secretary of the ABVP refuted the allegations calling them ‘baseless’ and ‘old tactics’.

Earlier this year as well, videos of SFI members being attacked at the Vishwavidyala metro station had emerged.

Do the repeated attacks deter the SFI?

“I will continue with my activism despite the attacks. I don’t think it has deterred any of my comrades; in fact, our numbers have grown. We’ve only been more motivated to fight back. It has fueled us to go forward with our movement.” says Anagha with a hopeful smile.

On the other hand, Monika from the ABVP denied the allegations, she stated “No, as far as our info is concerned none of the ABVP members was involved in the attack. Since, DUSU elections are approaching and ABVP is getting student’s trust and moving in a positive direction. That’s why they are defaming us.”

Sidharth Yadav, the Delhi Secretary of the ABVP was unavailable for comments. Sahil Malik did not respond to DU Beat’s messages.

Feature Image Credits: Jaishree Kumar for DU Beat

Jaishree Kumar

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Read how romanticising the nuanced conflict of Kashmir negates the trauma of its ground-reality.

There is a thing about pedestals- they act as an ideal way of distancing oneself from the responsibility of the reality. If one puts anything at a pedestal by glorifying it, and the sentiment acquires a ripple effect, then the glorified entity remains a far-away dream in popular imagination, because it is now an ideal one can seldom aspire to reach, or to change. In the mindset of countless individuals around the globe, the Kashmir Valley is on such a pedestal.

When we think of the ongoing conflict in Kashmir as twenty-first century young adults, not directly involved in its reality, it is almost always through a lens of Bollywood’s aesthetic frames. There is no denying the natural endowment of the Valley when it comes to its aesthetics, but this imagination often serves as a method to deny the human endowment of war and trauma in its past, present, and foreseeable future.

The mainstream media does not help change anything for us. Mainstream news outlets that reach the masses away from the site of conflict are often restricted by their own reasons- commercial, political, and populist- to present a Kashmir wronged by ‘the other’ (Pakistan, terrorists, violent militants) to us. What is activated in the Valley from the Indian end is either not revealed entirely, or is looked at as a retaliation on provocation. Movies exploit this narrative, supplying the masses often with an image of a tragically beautiful Kashmir Valley in violation by the enemy, while India is a saviour filled with good people and their great intentions. The narrative is of a damsel in distress.

As citizens of a time where the political scenario is largely based on turmoil and maligning the ‘other’, we take in the popular narratives and romanticise the tragedy further in our imagination. From the kind of literature we, as non-Kashmiris, read from and about the Valley, to the kind of films that are released about it, the utter grit of the conflict is almost always negated. Poetry and art are the media for numerous children of war to accept conflict as a part of their identity, and the richness of their verses and portrayals is often our entire worldview of a region in war with itself, and with the occupiers. The authority with which we then perpetrate the nuances of the issue on social media, and in our circles, reeks of a diaspora authority- distant, different, and sometimes indifferent to reality.

The Washington Post referred to 2018 as “the deadliest year in a decade in Kashmir” with over 400 reported deaths. In November 2018, a 20-month-old baby became the youngest victim of stone-pelting and lost her eyesight. Kashmir Valley is a region where violent conflicts can be listed by months. The grit of the violence is not a sonnet of beautiful sadness, but it is as real as a time-bomb that keeps ticking and killing at once. Samah Jabr, chair of the mental health unit at the Palestinian Ministry of Health, and many experts state that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a western concept as American soldiers return to normalcy after war, but the war never ends for those who are born in and then die in conflict-zones. For them, she explains, the fear of bombardment is not imaginary but justified; there’s no ‘post-trauma’.

We need to stop beautifying the horror in our imagination, and our expression, by becoming more than a distant onlooker. Films like Inshallah Football, No Fathers in Kashmir et al receive adult certification from CBFC, because of the authenticity of their conflict-portrayal. The least we can do as privileged citizens is seeking news, criticising cinema, and analysing our own understanding of the conflict in all its violent, political, traumatising manifestations, instead of remembering it merely as the land where pain breeds beauty for the outsider’s pleasure.

Feature Image Credits: NewsGram

Anushree Joshi

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In another violent crime at North Campus, a student was stabbed repeatedly; students plead for safety measures.

A student from the Delhi School of Economics (DSE) was attacked by unidentified phone snatchers on Sunday, 2nd December 2018. The incident took place late night, at the Naala Bridge at Patel Chest Institute, North Campus, University of Delhi (DU), which is in close vicinity of Maurice Nagar Police Station, New Delhi. A robbing attempt by bike ridden perpetrators escalated into violence, and the victim was stabbed in the back multiple times, with a knife. The victim, named Sandipan, is a 2nd year PhD student at DSE. Sandipan is currently admitted at Hindu Rao Hospital, Malka Ganj.

The police was informed about the incident and given the bike’s plate number belonging to the attackers. The perpetrators have not been found yet.

Patel Chest is the commercial centre of DU, residence to many students and is generally pervaded with students till late night. This makes it more prone to theft like violent crimes; reports of many armed robberies and attacks in the past stand proof of the same. Delhi University students have often been victims of violent crimes, and the inaction on behalf of the concerned authorities is problematic. Abhi Gyan, another student from DSE said, “The incident and police’s inaction is telling of how dangerous our own campus has become”.

Safety must be a top priority in areas inhabited by students. To urge the authorities to take corrective action and ensure their security in and around campus, the students of DSE organised a candle light march from DSE gates at 4:00 pm on Wednesday, 5th December 2018.


Feature Image Credits: Delhi School of Economics

Nikita Bhatia
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There is a life beyond survival which demands freedom and dignity. Peace at the cost of liberty is just sugarcoated slavery. However, violence should not be seen as some over the counter solution for every political problem.

“Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men.” -Lord Acton

Throughout human history, there has been a constant reshaping and change in the territorial boundaries and power equations. There have been imponderable wars and conflicts followed by incalculable treaties and agreements. However, these conflicts have been almost cyclic. Wars have been characteristic of human history. Textbooks teach that all these wars resulted because of the consequences that emerged in some specific contexts but when we look at them through a broader perspective, we realize that they were fought because people wanted more; more land, more resources, and above all more influence and power. Noam Chomsky, in his own understanding, says that “It is only in folk tales, children’s stories, and the journals of intellectual opinion that power is used wisely and well to destroy evil. The real world teaches very different lessons, and it takes willful and dedicated ignorance to fail to perceive them.” But there is a critique to this anarchical line of thought. Power is not bad but absolute and unchecked power is surely problematic. Humans by nature need an authority to control them and keep them organized.


People which seek absolute power without any legal/moral restraint are bound to be subjugated by those who have embraced authority with self-regulation.

Power is accompanied by violence. Violence is to power what pollution is to fossil fuels. As hard as one might wish, these two cannot be separated. Violence is terrible. The ugliness of violence is what has led most of the modern day thinkers and pro-democracy forces to denounce it and reject it as a form of struggle. However, one can not name a single nation state which emerged because of a struggle that employed peaceful methods throughout its course.

Indian National Movement, which is largely termed as a peaceful struggle, couldn’t have succeeded without violence. Tactics employed by Gandhi and leaders of his ilk were designed to provoke violent responses from their opponents. The images of unarmed protesters being attacked by the imperialists were extensively used to garner support for the movement. Barack Obama, America’s first black president, was elected through a peaceful electoral process but it was only made possible by a bloody revolution that happened more than a century ago (American Civil War) and various other violent struggles that followed. Non-violent methods can aid a struggle but they can not replace an indispensable form of resistance-violence, which is derived from power. Tiananmen Square protest is a classic example of a completely non-violent movement which was crushed using tanks and guns. The protesting students had enormous public support and yet they failed. The bitter truth is that force can only be defeated by force.


There has been a systematic demonization of violence in contemporary writings and narratives. However, it is ironical that proponents of such narratives are the ones who have been using violence as a tool for maintaining their power and dominance. Why does America impose sanctions on every country that has any nuclear ambitions? Being the only state which has used a nuclear bomb and having one of the world’s largest nuclear stockpiles, what moral high ground does it have to stop others from developing these weapons.


A state which has failed to protect its citizens from its own armed forces should not expect its citizens to protest peacefully. A state which is much oppressive and bans even the slightest forms of dissent has to be dealt with in a different manner.


The fundamentals of a nation state rest on the premise that only the state has the legitimate right to use violence and physical force within its territory for the purpose of maintaining its authority. And what is an authority? Who decides the legitimacy of this authority if the government is not elected by the people; if it works against the interests of the people? If it blocks the means to bring about a political change through civil resistance, how are people supposed to react? According to the social contract, a citizen surrenders certain rights and freedoms in exchange for the protection of his/her remaining rights and freedoms. However, when the government exploits these sacrifices without providing any security, it becomes obsolete and at times counter-productive.


There is a life beyond survival which demands freedom and dignity. Peace at the cost of liberty is just sugarcoated slavery. However, violence should not be seen as some over the counter solution for every political problem. A pre-condition for the success of any movement is political awareness. Violence has to have a purpose and it has to be the last resort. And to be purposeful and positively consequential, a struggle has to be well prepared, ordered and leader led.



Feature Image Credits: Sapiens


Maknoon Wani

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Members of ABVP allegedly assaulted students and staff and vandalised property in Zakir Hussain Delhi College  (Evening) on Monday.

On Monday, September 10th, 2018, the last day of campaigning for the Delhi University Students’ Union (DUSU), members of the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP) allegedly vandalised property at Zakir Hussain Delhi College (Evening) and assaulted the students and staff.

In a letter to the chairman of the Grievance Redressal cell DUSU 2018, condemning the vandalism, Akshay Lakra, President of National Students’ Union of India (NSUI) demanded the cancellation of the nomination of the ABVP Vice Presidential Candidate, Shakti Singh, who had gone to ZHC for campaigning when the violence broke out.

“This is a calculated attempt by ABVP to intimidate students through violence in the run up to the DUSU polls. The ABVP nominee for DUSU’s Vice President’s post entered the campus with a group of outsiders and terrorised the entire college by going on a rampage with blades, hockey sticks, and rocks,” wrote Lakra in the letter.

Image credits – Indian Express

College principal Masroor Ahmad Baig was quoted by the Indian Express as saying,”I don’t know how it started, but I was shocked to hear the commotion. They vandalised college property, broke chairs and threw flower pots. It was ABVP activists who beat up students; they even hit girls and staff.”

DCP (central) Mandeep Singh Randhawa, said, “Police personnel were present at the spot when the incident took place and they controlled the crowd. No complaint has been received from the college administration.” The violence was condemned by other student outfits contesting the polls and police action was demanded. An anonymous letter to the Assistant Commissioner of Police, Kamla Nagar claims that the main motive behind the incident was to insight and arise violence in the premises in the name of campaigning.

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Image credits – NSUI

A student of the college claimed Singh was stopped when he tried to enter with a large group of supporters. “He was told that he could take a few supporters for campaigning. They got angry and started breaking college property, and passed lewd comments,” alleged the student, who did not want to be identified. “The whole incident was so scary. I try to avoid college at this time of the year and I’m glad that I took a leave that day,” says a second year student of ZHC who wished to remain anonymous.

Image credits – NSUI

Indian Express quoted the ABVP national media convenor Monika Chaudhary as, “We have not been able to communicate with Singh. But the ones indulging in violence are not ABVP activists. Singh had gone to campaign in the college… what we know is that fight broke out between two student groups.”

Feature Image Credits: Anonymous

Muskan Sethi

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A DU graduate received rape, murder, and possible dis-figuration threats for criticising a matrimonial ad. The hate mail was sent from  an encrypted email id. 

Warning – The report contains a screenshot of the email, which includes rape and violence threats. 

A recent outlash in the form of email threats was received to a Delhi University pass out. The letter was filled with rape threats as disclosed in the images attached to the article. The mail was in response to the aggrieved stating out her opinions in regard to a matrimonial advertisement posted in The Hindu on Sunday, 9th September, 2018.



A few days ago, Priyanshu received the mail after reaching out to oppose the marital ad. The content of the advertisement chided and requested the potential bride to “non-feminist”, receiving angered reactions from the culprit. It was after stating her point on this advertisement, that she and her fellow friend received vulgar and tawdry messages from a username: ROOTswap threatening to rape them and claiming himself to be a “masculine warrior killer and rapist of all feminists…”.

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Anupreet Kaur

The victim states: “I was utterly shocked to have received such a vulgar message. It does not seem like a joke, as no one would stoop down to such a limit, my friend and I are genuinely disturbed by it”.  While this has been brought into limelight hitherto, there are suspicions that they may have targeted more women with such threats.

Unfortunately, she adds that “the email id is encrypted with the protonmail interface.” Within the brief period twenty-four hours she received another mail, harassing with all sorts of guts and gore threats, in exchange for her GPS location and pictures. The mail also included his offering of money in exchange for spending time with him- the condition being the girl to be ‘fair’ and ‘good-looking’.  The note ended with a threat of murder and possible disfiguring.

The mail has been sent to The Hindu headquarters to ensure a background check is undertaken of the culprit. The aid from the legal team may prove relief in such hard times. She further adds, “It is a good thing we have been receiving a good response from fellow users who are trying to win justice over from our side, it makes me happy that we know people are out there who support us”.

While online harassing for women is equally disturbing and traumatic, cyber security measures should be undertaken even more strictly and such issues should be discussed and circulated to create a strong voice.

It is problematic that the cost of voicing one’s opinion, especially for women in this country is apparently not greeted with appreciation but with rape threats. 

Feature Image Credits – Anupreet Kaur

Avnika Chhikara 

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