DUSU elections


Chaos arose at Hindu College as multiple candidate nominations were rejected for the ongoing Student Union elections. Students are protesting to demand an answer from the administration for the same.

Protests are ongoing at Hindu College amidst its Student Union election procedure, where hundreds of students have staged a hunger strike. This has come as a result of the cancellation of over 30 nominations for the posts of Prime Minister and members of the Central Council at the College, without any explanation from the Principal. The students are demanding transparency from the administration, which has reportedly failed to provide any answers yet.

On September 15, the College released the final list of contesting candidates for the concerned positions. For the post of Prime Minister, only two candidates have been selected. While there are two seats for members of the Central Council, only one candidate has made the list, leaving one seat vacant.

During the nominations, scrutiny did not take place under a witness, and neither is there any video proof to rely on. The selection process has been very arbitrary and the candidates who applied have not been given any updates regarding the reason behind their rejection.

-SFI Hindu via Instagram

The situation is being referred to as “an attack on democracy” by the students, who describe this as the administration’s way of unfairly choosing candidates in order to have more control over the activities of the Student Union.

Posters Circulated on Social Media to Call for Protests in Hindu College
Posters Circulated on Social Media to Call for Protests in Hindu College

On the 15th, protests commenced on the campus. Posters regarding a demonstration outside the principal’s office were spread on social media, and circulating videos showed student activists entering classrooms to talk about the issue.

When we approached the administration to enquire about the rejected nominations, we were told that the principal is on leave and the office shall remain closed. We will be on a hunger strike until we receive an answer from the administration.

-Manoj Jangir, a student whose PM nomination remains cancelled.

Police forces were later deployed on and around campus, where protesters were present. In an interview covered by ‘Delhi Uptodate’, protestors claimed they were baton-charged and said their hunger strike would continue until a justification for cancelled candidatures is received from the Principal.

As of September 16, the situation remains similar. Most classes stood suspended in light of the ongoing protests.

Read also: Protesters Demand Suspension of DRC Principal Dr Savita Roy 

Featured image credits: CNBC News

Arshiya Pathania
[email protected]

As many students finish their first semester in Delhi University (DU), the country is faced with a major political crisis which has divided India. At this time, should you join a student political party?

DU is an extremely political campus, with all colleges having some or the other form of student representation, with a wider Delhi University Students’ Union (DUSU) which represents students from most of the DU colleges. Some of the major student political parties present in DU are the Right wing, Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP), which is affiliated to the Hindu nationalist Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), National Students’ Union of India (NSUI), which is affiliated to Congress, All India Students Association (AISA) which is associated with Communist Party of India ( Marxist-Leninist) ( CPI-ML), and Students’ Federation of India which is associated with Communist Party of India (Marxist) ( CPI-M).

Many first years would have been told when they joined DU to stay away from politics by their parents, fearing the incidents of violence which come to play in DU politics. The political crisis in the country started by the passing of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA), which many opposed due to its openly islamophobic and communal nature and came out on the streets to protest against it. On the other side, groups have come out in support of this act.

Before joining a political party in a spur of the moment decision, one must try to consider what the party stands for. Joining a party just because you want to express dissent or because those around you are joining is not the right option, while these parties might give you the space to dissent and information about protests, it is important to know the ideologies that the party that you want to join, stands for. This can easily be done by reading the manifesto of the party.

Most parties can be easily joined by filling out a form on their website or by looking for their representatives on campus. If you do decide to join one, remember that you get to choose your level of participation. Being in parties will also open you up to learning more about the idealogies and the people behind them. Do not be discouraged by those telling you not to join, if you believe it is the the way to express yourself politically, then these organizations are the best way to go for it.

Feature Image credits: Noihirit Gogoi for DU Beat

Prabhanu Kumar Das

[email protected]

The board is set, the pieces are now moving. The battle is won, but the cause is lost. Do you sense the same?

The roads are all strange these days, without the smattering of a thousand flyers and pamphlets. It is almost disappointing to not see the flyers fall around the campus. Almost consoling are the misspelt names on the Wall(s) of Democracy. As the campus finally breathes in all its silence, the screaming political sobriety is in question. So, what follows now? Is it too early to recede to our apprehensions? Some might agree, but then there was never much space for agendas in those swanky BMWs on roads so choked with flyers. Beards and gold rings drove these SUVs and sedans, and beards and gold rings drive politics now.
Politics is a progression in the sense that it has always followed patterns. There are changes, but not necessarily as we would like to have them. After a raging contest of power in the past fortnight, the election results were in favour of some, while many others were left baffled. In an endless volley of blames and shaming, we saw some candidates rise to power recently. You hope to make sense out of it, but it all reduces to a clout of pointless manifesto promises. How long before these promises are fulfilled? Will the year be enough? Anyone who is even remotely familiar with the idea of politics will know what it means in practice. Agendas are good, but for a change, we would like to see some action too. Ironically, the only action we see is the action of the fist. In multiple brawls and the loss of public property, what is damaged most is the very idea of politics. Most of our representatives think that all politics has to offer is power, and power in India is scarce anyway. Responsibility is fantastical, so we cannot use this word for our politics. Politics is always about differentiated representation because two opinions can never be alike. This is what democracy implies, after all, it is the freedom to choose a representative. However, politics has become more divisive than ever before – it is driven by everything but democratic ethics. In DUSU, caste politics prevails, for instance, and in the national perspective, the division extends to manifold realms.
This year, like most years, political outfits claimed their primary objective to be that of women safety and claimed to improve their representation, the opportunities available to them, and provide a better environment to them in general. Introduction of U-special buses has been on the card since long, and new ideas like under INR 10 thali have been introduced this year. What we fail to observe amongst these tall promises is the question of what could possibly be their plan of action here? Being apolitical is a choice, but indifference can only mean ignorance that refuses to see the truth, and ignorance seems to sit at the core of all our problems. It is only right then, to be informed, aware, active, and to fight back with our form of dissent laced with logical arguments. The agendas might find fulfilment or hope to do so still, but only with an initiative from our side and that of the elected leaders.
Power gives you the strength to change, to reinvent, and to exercise an idea for the betterment of a cause. No one is wrong to expect this from those who stand for the upholding of power, but we all know who has the last laugh.
Kartik Chauhan

As EVM machine buttons in colleges are deciding the fate of the politics of our varsity, it is time to wonder why for a Varsity as politically aware as ours, we choose to stay aloof from our own elections.

The University of Delhi (DU) and the Delhi University Students’ Union (DUSU) elections are the epitome of what student politics in our country looks like. DUSU politics is an extension of national politics. Money and muscle power sway results, caste matters much more than we would like to believe, women are horribly underrepresented, freebies are secretly welcome, and just like national politics, the privileged do not bother turning up to vote. Like a 70s Bollywood film, DUSU politics has it all
– money, muscle power, a protagonist, and an army of self-righteous men, supporting their leader as if their life depends on it.

Elections in DU are a stepping stone to national politics. Becoming a DUSU office-bearer is the equivalent of winning a wild-card entry into the more significant horizon of state or national level politics. There is analogy, used in the varsity on and off, that there are 70 MLAs and 7 MPs in Delhi, but only one Delhi University Students’ Union President. The result of these elections result in a victory march of sorts, surrounded by supporters and the kind of mad frenzy that revolves in the air, highlights exactly how powerful this position is. As the winners climb on the Vivekananda statue in the Faculty of Arts, that moment signifies lakhs of rupees worth of campaigning, thousands of supporters, hundreds of cars that blocked the campus roads, and almost one year of unofficial lobbying.

When we try to understand why we don’t vote in DUSU elections, we need to understand why we don’t need to vote, in the first place. We don’t feel the need to stand in a two-hour long queue to press a button or understand which political party is offering subsidised canteen food v/s which is offering hostel facilities because we simply do not care and our day-to-day functioning is not affected by it. By virtue of how Delhi University functions-on the basis of high cut-offs- a fair share of its student body, especially in top ranking colleges hails from your stereotypical, private, CBSE/ISC school background where they had the luxury, guidance, and resources to chase a number as unrealistic as 98%. These students, who hail from privileged, upper-middle class families, need not bother about politics, just the way privileged individuals almost always do not care about politics because they’re above it, at least in principle. Schemes brought out for the majority aren’t applicable to them.

The power of one vote is cliché, to the point that the concept has stopped moving us. I will not urge you to exercise your democratic right by turning up to vote because every vote counts. I am sure you have heard that line before. But if you are one of the people who know by virtue of their birth, have their luxury to dissociate from politics, who are not plagued by the fear that the wrongly elected representatives could negatively impact your lives. If you are confident that with time, your life will continue as is, irrespective of how the results are, then I would tell you that you are extremely privileged.To have the luxury of not worrying about who would win, because you know you would be alright, is the primary symptom of being privileged.

The general student body of DU is woke. Students here volunteer,protest, resist, and take pride in fighting their battles. Therefore, the kind of hypocritical elitism they show towards DUSU politics is appalling. As we snub and stay complacent towards DU politics, another election season with its blatant caste-ism, sexism, and “might is right” attitude comes to a close. DUSU politics isn’t ugly because it has inherently been so, it is ugly because we refuse to engage in it. We have given bigger players in national politics the free reign to turn DUSU into their own little game of tennis, with the ball being in either sides of the court at all times. By refusing to engage with it, we have lost the right to claim to be above it. As you sit today, probably in a classroom or cafeteria of your college where you pursue a subsidised education, I would urge you to go ahead and vote. DUSU politics was never too ugly, we just neglected what was ours for too long.

Kinjal Pandey
[email protected]

With DUSU Elections coming to a close soon, it becomes imperative for voters to realise the importance their vote holds. Read on the maniefestos of the Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates from ABVP to know more about the contenders!

Candidate for the post of President-

Ankiv Baisoya
The Presidential candidate of the ABVP,
Mr. Ankiv Baisoya, had done his graduation in B.A. (Hons.) Economics from the College of Vocational Studies, University of Delhi (DU). Currently pursuing his Masters degree in Buddhist studies from the Department of Buddhist Studies (DU), Baisoya has been a diligent member of the ABVP for the last five years. When asked about his agenda for this year’s Delhi University Students’ Union (DUSU), he told DU Beat, “If I am elected as the President, I will make sure over fifty percent of the DUSU budget is allocated towards women empowerment, holistic development of students belonging to the SC and ST communities, and towards an extensive focus on sports in the varsity.”
The establishment of a Research Students’ Grievance Cell and ensuring the conduct of fair and regular elections to the Internal Complaints’ Committee in all colleges are amongst the developments that he wants to bring about in the varsity. Further, he envisages the provision of a police booth
near every hostel and college, and pledges to equip those booths with female police

When the DU Beat correspondent
asked Baisoya why he thinks he is worthy of the post of President, he stated,
“Besides working for the students at the
grassroot level in the last five years, I
have taken up their issues of grievance
and worked to mitigate the same. I have
actively contributed to the protests
demanding 24*7 access to the library
facility for students of DU’s North Campus, as a result of which the access to the library was extended by three hours. Moreover, I have tirelessly worked in the ABVP’s efforts to campaign against the imposition of massive taxes on sanitary napkins. The government’s cut on the taxes on sanitary napkins has been largely considered a resulting factor of our collective effort. I espouse a university which will treat all students equally regardless of the area or community they come from. I espouse a
university which will embrace the girl child and provide a safe learning environment for her. I espouse a university where students will be able to venture into the worlds of knowledge, unhindered.”

Candidate for the Post of Vice-
President: Shakti Singh
The Vice Presidential candidate fielded
by the ABVP, Shakti Singh, belongs to
Baniyan of Uttar Pradesh but has done his schooling from Nainital. Having completed his graduation from MIT Pune in the year 2016, he is currently is a second-year law student at the Faculty of Law, DU. Shakti, who is a national-level boxer and a silver medalist at the state-level, said, “As a sportsperson, I will try my best to create a better atmosphere to simultaneously encourage sports with academics so that we can establish a healthy society and set the grounds for a better sports culture in Delhi University. Moreover, I will make sure that sports funds are allocated accurately.”
Having worked for the non-governmental organisation, ‘Association for Awareness,’ Singh is an active proponent of women’s safety and security and a large aspect of his agenda is focussed on gender sensitisation.

Mr. Singh has propounded that self-defence training camps should be held in various colleges for the girl students. Another area that Singh wants to work upon is the control over the rent for rooms in the North and South campuses of DU. He told DU Beat, “It is unfortunate that students who come from different regions of the country to study in India’s premier university are compelled to pay huge sums of money just for their accommodation.

If I am elected as the Vice President, I will work for the drafting and implementation of a ‘Room Rent Control’ Bill. I will ensure that outstation students are not forced to pay a very high rent, and that there is a ceiling on the maximum amount that can be charged from students.” Stressing on the importance of every student’s vote, Singh’s message to the student community of DU is, “None of the Above (NOTA) is not an option.

NOTA would not resolve the problems of
high varsity fees or inadequate facilities
on campus. We must have a direction in
life in order to comprehensively fulfill the purpose of our existence. Similarly, if I am elected, I will try my level best to carve out a sense of direction for the varsity such that the student community can study and pursue their aspirations in a conducive environment.

As the country’s capital, Delhi has witnessed student movements and politics with the greatest trajectories. Other universities in India do not observe the same scenario. What makes politics and DUSU elections at DU different? Read on to find out.

The University of Delhi (DU) has never faltered to be on the forefront of political upheaval in the nation. From Gurmehar Kaur’s anti-war stances and resistance in the face of dogmatic backlash to her opinions, to Umar Khalid being shot two days before Independence Day, the students in Delhi have been vocal and active in their dissent and their vision to make a difference. During the election season in DU, the collaborative accounts of students reveal a picture of the campus filled with pamphlets, party supporters driving around in expensive vehicles, rallies, gatherings, and heated quarrels between the student leaders.

The candidates use techniques of mass polarisation by making promises of substance and raising appeal by distributing numerous popular items among students. There is an essence of participatory politics where students sit and discuss the candidates, party agendas, motivations, and political ideologies concerning the students. In a stark contrast to the situation in the capital, the atmosphere in the University of Mumbai is laid back. Students in Mumbai seldom voice their disapproval in the form of long-lasting loud protests. One of the deliberated reasons for this is the fact that colleges in Mumbai have an autonomous culture with rare unity as a single University, unlike DU. There are no common elections for the University of Mumbai, and the election day in colleges involves 20 to 25 people sitting in a room, discussing agendas, and finally voting for various posts.
At the Indian Institute of Technologies (IITs), there is a state of polarisation for freshers and some rallying, but the intensity of DU still supersedes. Shivam Rohilla, a third-year student at IIT Kharagpur, states, “Publicity levels are extremely high during elections, especially targeting the fresher population of over 1,400. But the passion of politics of DU is much higher.” Students at the Banaras Hindu University gripped this country’s attention in 2017 with their protests against the gender discriminatory practices of the university. The #Hokkolorob (make some noise) Movement in Jadavpur University of Kolkata against the molestation of female students resulted in the resignation of Abhijit Chakraborty, the Vice Chancellor.

Many such incidents have occurred across the country, but they do not receive the same traction as political movements in DU often do. Vishal Ranka, the current Sports Secretary at Usha Pravin Gandhi College in Mumbai, shared his experience of studying a semester in DU, and said, “People here at Mumbai University are more confined to their colleges and react to the issues with peace, which is irritating some times, but in DU, the scene has a way stronger vocalisation of its issues.” He believes that the influence of the national political parties on the student politics in Delhi, like Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad and the National Students’ Union of India has a great impact on the political scene at DU.


Feature Image Credits: DU Beat.

Anushree Joshi

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 AISA will nominate candidates for the positions of President and Vice-President while CYSS will contest for the posts of Secretary and Joint Secretary.

In a joint press conference, Aam Aadmi Party’s (AAP) Delhi convenor Gopal Rai today announced the alignment of the party’s student wing Chhatra Yuva Sangharsh Samiti (CYSS) and Communist Party of India’s (CPI-ML) youth wing All India Students Association (AISA) to tackle the NSUI-ABVP hegemony in the University political sphere. Also attending the press conference were Kawalpreet Kaur, President of Delhi wing of AISA and CYSS student leader Sumit Yadav.

The alliance would be key to the resurgence of CYSS as the party returns after a hiatus of two years and would be heavily banking on the experiences of AISA in the DU elections and its recent successes in pitching student relating issues.

Gopal Rai alluded to the degrading quality of campus politicians and the money-muscle dominance as the chief motivation behind the joint contention. “This coming together is for the students who want a clean politics in the campus, a politics of total participation, and a politics of a change in the educational climate in the campus.”

However, AISA president Kawalpreet Kaur indicated that rather than considering this an ideological merger, this move should rather be seen as a necessary political move to tackle campus anarchy.
In a conversation with our correspondent, she maintained, “It is in no way a compromise on the ideology rather as Marxists we have responded to the immediate vaccum in this country as this is the last DUSU election before 2019 Lok Sabha polls. We wanted to provide a platform which rejects goondaism. As all of us were hoping that NSUI has defeated ABVP last year and will be an alternative but it has so far proven that both of them are similar as NSUI stood silent on all anti-student policies of the government and the ABVP-NSUI nexus gave each other support. This is a historic time where our campus can send a big message, establish an alternative model and set tone for 2019”.

Feature Image Credits – Navodaya Times

Nikhil Kumar
[email protected]

Another edition of Delhi University Students’ Union(DUSU) elections gone by, another year’s campaigning done and dusted. What lies ahead is the vast aftermath of elections and the countless reforms the process is yet to witness.

DUSU elections are continuously undergoing some change. From the implementation of EVMs(Electronic Voter Machines) that replaced ballot boxes to the NOTA(None of The Above) option that was introduced last year, many issues have been rectified by the responsible authorities.

However, a slight cause of worry is the fact that out of the total votes for all four posts, NOTA votes increased by a staggering 60%, from 17,722 last year to 29,770 this year. The use of this option should be lauded, but to prevent NOTA votes from increasing next year too, we can improve and learn from foreign universities’ student body elections and draw parallels that stand relevant in the Indian scenario.

  1. Referendums can be held to solidify the constitution that governs DUSU elections.This procedure, complicated to understand but easier in practice, requires contesting suits to get signatures to put forward a question for a referendum on the ballot. If a threshold of signatories is reached, the referendum is conducted to make elections more student inclusive. If the question gets the support of 2/3rd of the voters with at least 10% voting in favour, the proposed amendment is passed and cannot be repealed by any authority. This gives voters the significant power to exercise their rights and influence legislation governing them. This model is actively followed at Harvard University.
  2. Unlike the case in India, in most University Government Bodies(UGB) in the U.S, candidates are not affiliated with any political party, either the Democrats or Republicans. There are, however, separate clubs and organisations that harbour their ideologies, regardless of which they still have no direct link with the parties. It is unlikely that the same model will ever be followed in the Indian scenario, but it provides an insightful snippet of thought for future elections.
  3. University officials are striving to make elections relevant to the digital age but still follow outdated mediums to do the same. Since Delhi University is an open university with colleges spread far and wide, for a candidate to reach out to the maximum number of students in limited time is an impossibility. Conducting university-wide debates in henceforth not possible, and not every college has the required infrastructure to accommodate all the students of its institution for the same. Candidates in foreign universities come up with websites meant specifically for their election campaigns. Following a similar digital route, candidates for DUSU elections can conduct live sessions, use chat boxes for live question-answer rounds and spread manifesto circulars on open social media platforms.

As much as political parties are despised during the time leading up to elections, many have pitched in reforms that could potentially bring revolutionary changes. The number of EVMs can be increased and mock runs of EVMs can be conducted, as the controversy of tampering always arises after elections are through. Audits could be conducted of the DUSU expenditure and the same published on a public portal to help interested students review the functioning of the outgoing DUSU panel. (Credits: NSUI and ABVP)

A plethora of similar suggestions have been pitched already, but very few implemented to keep up with the time. Most of the time there are administrative delays and faults that hinder path-breaking changes in the student electoral process. A certain degree of autonomy and accountability could go hand-in-hand to help voters and candidates exercise this opportunity and uphold the spirit of democracy.

Image Credits: My Republica


Vijeata Balani

[email protected]


Now that the Delhi University Students’ Union (DUSU) elections are finally over and you’ve voted to elect your leaders who claimed to transform your college into one that resembled an institution of the west, it’s time to rest. The ‘rest’ doesn’t refer to you relaxing, but rather to the Union.

Every year, the same sequence of events plays out. It has been running for so long that this silence which suddenly appears everywhere after this hullabullah of elections seems normal. The storyline is obvious; the passion and vigour of the student leaders to work for the welfare of the students is so short-lived that even the graffiti which carries their names and is used to deface the city during the elections lasts longer.

How does so much energy suddenly fade into oblivion at the end of the day?

“The leaders are, after all, students and are lazy just like you and me.” Even if one decides to buy this logic, the argument that follows fails to be convincing on any level. There is no reason for any sort of leader to ignore his or her responsibilities one he or she has come to power on the back of people’s votes. Accountability is key. Another reason might be that this vigour doesn’t actually belong to the students of the University but is, in fact, artificially created by the outsiders who are mostly the caste-based supporters brought into the varsity by these candidates. Hence, this ‘outsourced’ vigour doesn’t survive even a day after it has served its purpose. Out of both of these reasons, the latter portrays the reality.

If one digs deeper in search of the reason behind this inactivity, the story becomes clear. A simple look into the manifestoes floated by parties before the election uncovers the entire picture. This year, the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP) promised to start U-special buses and increase the number of hostels for students of the varsity. This is an unreasonable promise as out of these, one comes under the onus of the Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) which is a body of the Delhi government, while the latter entirely rests upon the university administration and governing bodies of the colleges. In both cases, the Union has no real power to do anything except for protesting and writing letters. Similar pictures emerge with the National Students’ Union of India (NSUI) and other parties. These tall promises by candidates and parties are akin to showing students the dream of reaching the moon when in reality, they don’t even have the technology of building a rocket. This is precisely why the same issues are raised every year, with absolutely no success.

In the condition of having promised the moon, and with no promises of the things that they can actually do within their power, these leaders embark upon the slippery slope of being absent for major parts of the year. They only make their presence known until something controversial pops up, such as the Ramjas College issue which can offer them another chance of greater media visibility.

In a scenario where our leaders are absent for the majority of the year, it’s we, the students, who suffer the most. It’s high time these elections stop referring to things that the Union cannot do, and instead start becoming a fight about what the Union can, and should, do.


Srivedant Kar

[email protected]

Delhi University Students Union (DUSU) polls have been done with and now the winning party has announced of competitions that can present you with a trip to abroad.

In the unending list of promises made by the students’ wings of major political parties, the latest addition is the announcement of a lucky draw competition to be held for students of Delhi University. The venue has been tentatively disclosed as the Vice-Chancellors’ lawns in the North Campus, while the dates shall  be announced soon. The leaders have wide agendas from covering placements to trips, and now they have added to their list the dreams of a few who want to travel abroad.  Among the thousands of applications, ideate yourself as the five lucky winners who get a chance to fly overseas!

The procedure is simple and interesting:

Apply as soon as the dates are released; through the given link, a ticket will be generated that you have to show on the day of the competition. The ticket shall have your university enrollment number, college name and residential  address. On the day of the competition, the participants will be required to bring their tickets to begin the game.

As per the released data, only students with passports older than three months shall be allowed to participate. To this, added are the details of the places that they have finalised. The winners get to choose among six different places: The most attractive being Rio-de-Janeiro, the beautiful city in Brazil. Gorgeous mountains, pristine beaches, and a surplus of rainforests near a deep blue sea – Rio is one of the most gorgeous cities in the world. Dublin, the capital of Ireland is the place you have been dreaming since ever. Next is Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, a city that houses monkeys and a myriad of cultures you’d love to explore. Then comes the Fiji Islands where travellers of all kinds flock to for its remarkable beaches and welcoming demeanour. Fifth is Chiang Mai, nestled grandly on Northern Thailand’s foothills with picturesque mountains. The last option is Thimphu, Bhutan with the Himalayan sceneries. Excited much? And now, here’s to drop the cherry topping: insiders have informed us of the probable complementary ticket for any one family member.

Of the historical extravagant DUSU polls, with food and movie ticket distribution, this year will mark the beginning of a new era of inordinate competition by the winning posse. So, gear up boys and girls because this tenure of the leaders is going to be proven the best with this dream-come-true competition. Indeed, elections are at times a big boon for the lucky few.

**Disclaimer: Bazinga is our weekly column of almost believable fake news. It is a humorous, light hearted column that should only be appreciated and not accepted.


Feature Image Credits: Trip Advisor

Radhika Boruah

[email protected]