The English department of Lady Shri Ram College for Women called for a series of General Body Meetings in light of the increasing state of communal violence faced by the city and its people. 

On 2nd March 2020, the English department called for a General Body Meeting at the Peace Centre. The GBM was centered around the issue of increasing state of communal violence faced by the city and its people, and was called in order to decide the extension of help to those affected by the violent environment. Following message was circulated by the English Department Union: “Minutes of Today’s Meeting and Call for GBM. In today’s meeting, we discussed the current political climate and what the department can do to play its part. 2A’s decision to boycott classes indefinitely was discussed, along with similar boycott by the department collectively, as well as collection drives, fundraising efforts, and volunteering at protest sites.

Students suggested the following ideas:

-Freeze attendance in case of classes undertaking boycotts or students unable to attend classes.

-Have one event a week wherein professors can discuss the larger situation creating space for discussion

-Publish a collective narrative of real experiences, use blogs and social media to raise awareness

-Restructure class lectures making classrooms flexible spaces for open ended discussions, if people really want to attend them

-A schedule of extra classes by teachers, or study sessions with seniors, once the boycott is over.

Some students also expressed their reluctance to boycott as they felt it could be a tokenistic gesture. The union has expressed these views to their staff advisors and administration and will be addressing the department about possible ways forward tomorrow at 10:45 in the peace centre before the protest gathering. If you are able to come to college, please attend this GBM. 

English Department Union” 

The action of boycott was first initiated by a section of second year students pursuing English honours. The section decided to go on indefinite boycott of classes in order to join protests and shake the illusion of normalcy on campus. However, differing views did arise. “I feel that it’s a very elitist stance. To go on an indefinite boycott could just hamper the education of the marginalized sections. Some can afford to pay to repeat the semester but can everybody do it? Also, what are we even doing while carrying out a boycott? Do we have a charter of demands? Are we taking any substantial step to improve the situation and actually utilize the time we have because of the boycott? If it’s only about being able to join protests then even a partial boycott on days of protests can fulfill that need. And if it’s only about showing that normalcy does not exist then it can be done while also attending classes. For instance, people could organise protests on campus after classes or wear symbols of dissent like t-shirts or any other such thing that says stuff like no NRC, CAA, NPR.”, said a student from 2A who wished to remain anonymous. On 3rd March 2020 the Union discussed their conversation with staff advisors and possible ways forward with the department. One of the resolutions was conducting online anonymous polls. Two possible outcomes came into perspective. Firstly, total indefinite boycott wherein the “entire department will call for a total boycott irrespective of internals and attendance, in solidarity with students from affected areas”. Secondly, partial boycott in which “the department will call for a boycott of classes post 11am (or suitable time), irrespective of attendance and internals, in days in which protest marches and gatherings are scheduled”. On the same day, the department announced the following: “After repeated GBMs and a vote, the department has reached a tally of 115 votes for a total boycott and 68 votes for a partial boycott. However, after the count was over, 23 students have approached us asking for a revote with a “No boycott” category. Since the option was not expressed by these people or their representatives at the GBMs, and since there is an overwhelming majority for a total boycott, this is the stance that we will be following. Since mid-sem break is right around the corner and questions arise about the situation concerning the same, we will be re-evaluating once college reopens post break.” 


Many students complained about the inability to express their views freely. “I also don’t feel absolutely free to be able to share an opinion that the majority does not support because if someone is speaking of wanting to attend classes, all of them are trying to educate her on how the boycott is important and how they are being insensitive by thinking of classes so they’re trying to just reinforce their opinion all the time when they should try to accommodate everyone’s voices.”, said a second year student from Lady Shri Ram College for Women. Another GBM was called on 5th March 2020 at 11am, to discuss the matter with the department. The following message was circulated by the Union: “Based on the GBM today, the department will be following a partial boycott stance as a collective, wherein the entire department will only boycott all classes on days of protest marches and youth gatherings. However, individual sections are free to follow a total boycott stance provided the entire class agrees to this motion. This decision comes as a result of groups of students feeling bullied and targeted for picking a stance or for attending classes, as well as the confusion in communication between students and their CRs. Note: 

  1. Classes will take place for those who wish to attend.
  2. For students unable to attend college due to safety concerns, the union will be making attempts to ensure that attendance is granted to you all and extra classes can be arranged as well.
  3. For students or classes who wish to boycott indefinitely, some teachers are willing to take extra classes in order to ensure that you do not miss out on syllabus.
  4. If a section comes to a consensus about total boycott, their CRs must communicate that to their teachers and ensure that no student is attending classes on the days of total boycott. 

Further discussions are awaited after the mid-semester break. The department also has its annual conference- Litmus 2020 scheduled on 20th and 21st March 2020. 

Feature Image Credits: DU Beat Archives 

Image Credits: Department of English, LSR


Priyanshi Banerjee

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A recent online wave in Lady Shri Ram College for Women (LSR) highlighted a silent setback in the campus. Many students raised voices in unison, against the cancer of discrimination.

Lines along the Indian landmass were demarcated years ago, along linguistic isobars . Years later, linguistic lines lurk around the corridors of LSR, a difference which stands – one language pushes others to the shackles of exclusion. Language – a tool of communication fails its capability when the very tool of communication becomes the tool of division. A virtual pedestal is set in many minds, merely based on an entitled proficiency in a certain language.

The heavy words of empowerment, solidarity and strength lie as empty rhetoric while the ‘superior’ language is garlanded with appreciation. October witnessed an online ‘mini-movement’ when Overheard LSR drew light upon the issue of inclusivity in LSR. The initiative got a great response from students; turning out to be like a litmus test for the impending superiority which reigns supremacy in the campus. As the discussion progressed, a sharp turn took it towards language barriers. Overheard LSR asserted – “Life in LSR is complicated, to say the least. From the outside, it looks great. It shows you woman power and solidarity and makes you feel like you’ve found a place to belong in… However, for so many people LSR is exactly what it supposedly fights against… Everytime we convert a class of 18-year-olds into groups, into ‘us’ and ‘them’ – look around. What is it that’s right in front of us each day and yet we consciously choose to look right past it?”

Students, specially from the Department of Hindi and Sanskrit face a lot of problems in this regard. Simple activities turn out to be a huge weight on one’s bosom. A student from the Department of Hindi who did not wish to be named said, “I come from a very small town in Uttarakhand. At the very beginning I was excited about LSR, but eventually, language turned out to be a great barrier. Even when I got my subject for General Elective, I had to change it because my teachers used English as the medium for lectures which made the task of understanding very difficult. Eventually, I opted for Sanskrit as the language is not an issue in this case,”. She further added, “If I wish to talk to people from any other department, then English has to be a must; also  listening to them speak in English makes me feel that I thought of talking to the wrong person. Here, English is a ‘status language’ but I do face a lot of problem – whether it comes to the administration or professors. I feel like only talking to people from my own department”

Anjali Jha, another student from the Department of Hindi said, “I think our professors sometimes ignore students from the departments of Hindi and Sanskrit. We never said that we have any problem regarding the usage of English as the medium. However, our professor speaks in Hindi whenever she talks to us, it feels ‘weird’. Just because someone opts for Hindi or Sanskrit does not mean that she does not know English, it is only the fact that someone wants to pursue a specific subject.”

While alienation cannot be a neglected fact, a peaceful coexistence does find a place . Anusha Khan, a first-year student pursuing English Honours who has keen interest in Hindi and Urdu poetry had something to say, “I recently participated in the inter-college Hindi/ Urdu Poetry competition which was an overwhelming experience. It made me realise  how exquisite any language can be. No means of expression need any kind of validation from anyone.”

A student from LSR who wanted to remain anonymous said, “I am not sidelining the fact that discrimination is the harsh truth. But being a part of the college magazine, I must say that diversity is acknowledged. Recently, we shortlisted Language Editors- Assamese, Bengali, Kashmiri, Telegu; we have editors for many languages. An inclusive space is not absolutely obsolete.”

Thoughts have been highlighted but an emphasised change is awaited.

Feature Image Credits: DU Beat Archives


Priyanshi Banerjee

[email protected]


The University Grants Commission (UGC) has granted approval to the University of Delhi (DU) to start five online courses, that would be made public from January 2020. 

On 1st October 2019, the University of Delhi got the green light to conduct five online undergraduate courses by the UGC from January 2020 by the School of Open Learning (SoL). The courses provided by DU will be made made available for five subjects: B.A. Programme, B.A. (Hons.) English, B.A. (Hons.) Political Science, B.Com, and B. Com (Hons.). 

 An official from UGC spoke to NDTV  and said that SOL will upload the learning materials on its website by November this year and start enrolling students in the program from January 2020. The courses will be made available for students in India as well as those abroad, and are being introduced to attract global students to study at the University of Delhi. 

The letter of intent (LoI) was issued by the UGC to the university on 16th September 2019, as reported by DNA India

“These courses actually belong to the School of Open Learning (SOL) but by January they will become online courses and will be available all around the world,” a senior official was quoted by a news daily. 

“One of the officials of the Delhi University said that the proposal of online courses was put forward by 22 universities but UGC gave permission to only four universities out of which the Delhi University is one,” the report said.

Dr CS Dubey, Director of the Campus of SOL, said that the online courses will be available not just in India, but students from any country can take admission in the courses. Earlier, Dubey had also said that the DU is planning to conduct 30 per cent of its exams online in a phased manner.

Students too appreciated this. Sabaa, a second year B.A. (Hons.) English said, “I think it is a great opportunity being offered by the University. Not only is it good for integrating DU in the global educational structure, every year the cut-offs become impossible to achieve. This way, those who didn’t clear the cut-offs or are outstation students without the means to move to Delhi for studying, can also enrol in the University. “

Students can look for further details at du.ac.in, the university’s official website. 

Feature Image Credits: DU Beat Archives.

Shreya Juyal

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A demand to introduce Maithili as one of the languages offered by the University has been raised by a section of teachers from the University of Delhi.

This comes into light after the Delhi Government had announced the proposal of having Maithili as a subject for the students whose mother language is Maithili. It will be taught as an optional subject for classes 8 to 12 in Delhi schools.

In a letter addressed to the Vice Chancellor of the University, Prof. Yogesh Tyagi by Associate Professor Rajiv Kumar Verma  from Satyawati College, the latter puts forward various reasons for introducing Maithili as a part of the subjects offered by the University. 

He brings into light that during the academic session this year, Maithili Elective/Core were included in the language subjects. Further strengthening his stand, he said that the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) also introduced Maithili as an optional paper in which many candidates have been successful. 

Mr. Verma has been a former Academic Council (AC) member. 

The action has been perceived as a welcome move throughout the University.

Mr. Rajesh Jha, a member of the University’s executive council quotes, “Maithili is spoken in areas of eastern Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Bihar. This year, around 50,000 students had applied from UP and 15,120 from Bihar for admission in DU.” 

As of now, the University of Delhi’s Department of Modern Indian Languages offers courses in languages such as Tamil, Telugu, Assamese, Bengali, Kannada and Gujarati amongst others but not in Maithili. 

It is therefore expected that having the language would grab the interest of a large number of students studying in the University.

Delhi University Student’s Union (DUSU) President Mr. Akshat Dahiya also said that the introduction of Maithili will be a great inclusionary step for the students from Purvanchal and encouraged the move. 

Feature Image Credits: DU Beat Archives.

Amrashree Mishra

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On the recommendations of the oversight committee, the competent authority has approved the syllabus for English, Political Science, History and Sociology.

The oversight committee put in place for the revision of the syllabus for first-year undergraduate courses at the University of Delhi (DU) has approved the changes in the curriculum of four subjects – English, Political Science, History and Sociology, and has asked the departments to consider some of its recommendations.

According to a report in The New Indian Express, in letters to the departments, the DU Deputy Registrar has notified that the syllabus for the first semester of Political Science, English, History, and Sociology as well as the syllabus of the General Elective papers for the same has been screened by the competent authority.

It has also been recommended that the updated and complete curriculum is to be uploaded by the departments on their website to invite consultations and suggestions from the student body. The committee has also directed that the syllabus, after revisions and edits, will then have to be submitted for final approval by 31st October 2019.

Amidst protests, the DU Executive Council had returned the syllabus submitted for undergraduate programmes for these key subjects to their respective departments. The syllabus was met with objections raised by some teachers and students, who protested that the revised syllabus was intended to put forth a right-centric ideology.

The Oversight Committee had given the respective departments a deadline till 31st July 2019 to complete the revision process of the syllabus, after taking into account the objections raised by different members.

Meanwhile, DU has asked its Executive Council (EC) to consider the change in modalities of the School of Open Learning (SOL) and Non-Collegiate Women’s Education Board (NCWEB) by conducting semester-wise examinations like DU.

The council stated that the agenda of the meeting was notified to them just a day before the meeting, so they weren’t given sufficient time. EC member Rajesh Jha told The New Indian Express that the members were not given enough time to consult the stakeholders of this decision. He also added that many of the EC members couldn’t even attend the meeting.

Feature Image Credits: News18

Bhavya Pandey

 [email protected]

Members of the Academic Council (AC) have written to the Vice Chancellor (VC) to put the approval of the revised syllabus on hold.

The controversy in the University of Delhi (DU) surrounding syllabus of certain undergraduate courses looks far from over. In a recent turn of events, eight members of the University’s AC belonging to the National Democratic Teachers’ Front (NDTF), have asked the VC to not approve the controversial syllabus of the four undergraduate courses immediately.

Emphasizing the need for a “comprehensive” deliberations on the syllabus, the members of the AC have also demanded that an “independent inquiry committee be constituted to expose the persons behind the conspiracy against academics, Indian culture and the Indian state.”

Controversy over DU’s revised syllabus erupted over the inclusion of study materials in the English course related to the role of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) in the infamous 2002 Gujarat riots, and use of Hindu deities in the reading of Queer literature. Such additions have invited the wrath of right-wing forces who find this “unfortunate”.

The Varsity has since then witnessed a bunch of protests by the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP), the AC, and invited counter-protests by organisations like the Students’ Federation of India (SFI), All India Students’ Association (AISA),  Krantikari Yuva Sangathan (KYS), Pinjra Tod, Delhi University Teacher’s Association (DUTA) among others over the proposed syllabus in what has become an ideological battle.

Barring the syllabus of the first semester which has already been passed, the AC has asked the VC to keep the rest on hold.

A copy of the letter has also been sent to M K Pandit, Chairman of the Oversight Committee, to whom the approved syllabus has been sent for further action.

In his statement to The Indian Express, Pandit said, “It’s not individuals who decide; there is a process and a committee will decide after due deliberations.”


Featured Image Credits: Niharika Dabral for DU Beat

Shreya Agrawal

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On Monday, 29th August 2019, a book discussion with the bestselling writer Ravinder Singh was organised by the English Literary Society of Miranda House.

The English Literary Society of Miranda House celebrated the presence of Ravinder Singh, the bestselling romance writer for their first event of the session 2019-20. The writer talked about his latest book: “The Belated Bachelor Party”, in a book discussion which was attended by a great number of students of Miranda House.

The author, most famous for his book I Too Had a Love Story, began the event by introducing himself and his works. He then went on to narrate the real-life incidents that took place, and which inspired him to write The Belated Bachelor Party. From friends that made little sense, to a Europe trip that went wrong in more ways than one, he kept the audience engaged with his little anecdotes. He revealed that the story is about him and his three other friends who went on a Europe trip for their Bachelor’s Party long after their marriage. By saying this, he also justified the title of the book.

“Since I’ve been writing romance for such a long time, I wanted to challenge myself. So, I decided to write a book that makes people laugh, after writing ones that made them cry,” said the author, explaining why he decided to write this book in the genre of humour.

He went on to talk about friendship and advised the audience to hold on to the friends that they have in life, and also said that the only kinds of relationships that we choose in life are: a lover and friends. He said, “Romance is a subset of the larger set called friendship.”

He further added that the book is about friendship and the special bond you have with people you have chosen yourself to let into your life. 

After he finished talking about the books, he took in questions from the audience as well. The audience, eager to participate, asked insightful questions such as- how he dealt with the ups and downs of being a primarily semi-autobiographical writer, and how he integrated social issues in his writing.

On being questioned about the agenda of addressing social issues through his books, he clarified that his book, Your Dreams Are Mine Now, addresses the issue of youth politics and in his another book, Will You Still Love Me talks about road safety.

He further addressed a major issue about the lack of readers in the Indian society. He mentioned that currently there are only a handful of authors in India who work as full-time writers and make a good living out of writing. The problem behind this was, he explained, that the people of our country do not read. Reading is a great task for us and book stores are getting shut. People are going from bad to worse. He made a comparison between India and UK and said that in the UK, people read 10 times more than us.

According to him, “Reading a book is like watching a story getting unfolded in front of your eyes. You live a thousand lives when you read a thousand books.”

The writer further addressed the problems in the publishing market and told the students to focus on their creativity and try the options of self-publishing. He advised the students to try to build up an online audience and then try to approach big publishing houses.  

The event was a complete success buzzing with humour, candor, and a lot of life tips.

 Feature Image Credits: The Literary Society, Miranda House via Instagram

Priya Chauhan

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Satviki Sanjay

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The English Department of the University of Delhi (DU) unanimously passed the undergraduate syllabus without any further changes, despite initially having objections to the proposed amendments.

In a set of new developments in the DU syllabus-revision row, the Committee of Courses of the Department of English of DU, has concordantly approved the syllabus to the undergraduate course after the Executive Committee (EC) had sent back the proposed syllabus with 26 points which they wanted to be changed.

However, the department had earlier dismissed these changes as ‘absurd and irrational’, but has now passed them all, with the external faculty of advisors even commending the new content. External experts, Dr Anup Singh Beniwal, former Vice Chancellor (VC) and Dean of Humanities of Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University (GGSIP) and Dr Mukesh Ranjan, from Jamia Millia Islamia University (JMI), scrutinized the syllabus and praised its academic merits.

The EC had sent back the curriculum for further review under the supervision of an oversight committee and resubmission by the end of the month. The Faculty of Arts, DU will also be vetting the syllabus before it is implemented across the varsity.

Earlier this month, only a few days before the start of the new session at DU, the Varsity had asked for expert comments and suggestions towards the revision of syllabi of many undergraduate courses. Out of which, those of English, Sociology, History and Political Science have undergone as many as thirty changes. But the University has still not decided whether to scrap the proposed revamped syllabi or to implement it.

In an interview with The New Indian Express, a source from the English Department said, “In the Indian Writing section, we are being asked to replace Amitav Ghosh’s The Shadowlines with RK Narayan’s Swami and Friends, Meena Kandaswamy’s Touch with Premchand’s The Shroud. We had to point out that Amitav Ghosh has just won the Gyanpeeth Puraskar and bears more contemporary relevance. Also, that Premchand is not an Indian English author. His work is already there in the Modern Indian Writing in Translation paper.”

The faculty had already dropped the most disputed short story titled ‘Maniben alias Bibijaan’ written by Shilpa Paralkar which entailed a Hindu woman’s connection with a Muslim man in the backdrop of the Godhra riots of 2002 and hinted that a character – a member of the Bajrang Dal – was associated with looting and burning an old Muslim man alive with his granddaughter.

“We also had to drop an essay by Mukul Kesavan on a politically empowering government, (and) Neha Dixit’s award-winning reportage on mob-lynching. We had to get rid of all reference to Indian deities and their association with queerness — we are only trying to make the students engage with gender beyond the binary and we have had that in Indic civilisation since ancient times. The Ardha-Nariswar avatar of Shiva is the best example of gender fluidity. But they did not accept the argument and alleged that Shiva is being held up as the symbol for the LGBTQ community,” said Saikat Ghosh, a member of the Standing Committee, Academic Council and an Assistant Professor of English at the Varsity, in conversation with The New Indian Express.

The faculty members of the English Department had also mentioned that they are unclear of what is expected of them in the face of conflict regarding the nature and tone of the syllabus, and are confused as to which syllabus to follow or what to teach the students. They have also made clear that they “will not be entertaining any further absurd modifications”.

The past week, protests by the Akhil Bhartiya Vidyalaya Parishad (ABVP) at North Campus of the University, also objected to the ‘uncalled for and unnecessary changes’ to the syllabus, while other parties like the  All India Students’ Association (AISA) protested against the intrusion of ABVP in the process of the making of the syllabus.

Meanwhile, the students of the Varsity are having to bear the brunt of the delays in decision-making and the revision process.



Feature Image Credits: Spirit Earth Awakening


Bhavya Pandey

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The British have left our country but have left their superiority behind. Should we see regional language speakers as any lesser than us?
English language is considered to be essential for us in educational institutions, jobs and even all around the world. It holds importance and is one of the most spoken language all over the world. But does this mean it is better than other languages? Why is the ability to speak in English seen to exceptional? Why are English TV shows and poetry cooler than that regional ones?
While the importance of English as a language is indisputable, what becomes wrong is seeing English as superior and other languages as inferior, these feelings of inferiority thereby get associated even to the person speaking in that language. For instance, a friend of mine was trying to describe how the crowd in her college was and said, “The crowd is good and all, like people can speak proper English”. This is just an instance of how people, including yours truly, are guilty of using this skill as a metric to judge many people we come across.
Vidhi Arora of Kamala Nehru College commented, “In my opinion, the dominance of English language not only creates a class divide, but also harms the indigenous cultures and traditions, i.e. that aren’t “cool” enough because of the language they are performed in. People are disincentivised from the anything native : folk art, old story telling or even the Indian celebrated authors like Rabindranath Tagore and Premchand are sidelined because of the language that they were written in”.
A few weeks back I went to Zakir Hussain College for a Parliamentary Debate. A part of that event was a performance by a few shayars. Their performance got no applause and no recognition, to break this palpable awkwardness they made jokes and said “Slam poetry ka zamaana aa gaya hai, ab yeh shayariya kaha pasand aayegi”. The world has become a place where shayari, Sufi nights , ghazals and poetry in Urdu or Hindi no longer are appreciated.
It has become evident how this hierarchy is created by the virtue of speaking a language.

Opinions of people, their potential, the general idea of what is “cool enough” is based on this simple, but unfair idea. These ‘sophisticated’ spaces, where the elite are allowed to exist. Let us look at the flip side of this. In the film often in India cinema this beautiful foreigner is a character (Lara from Yeh Jawani Hai Deewani) speaks broken Hindi and is still seen as “cute” and adorable.

Devanshi Khatter provides a unique point of view, “I feel the reason activities like shayaris or dohas, something that us even taught to us in school, is getting faded away and being overshadowed by slam poetry is because of the fascination western culture and huge influence of social media. I also feel slam poetry in essence is more relatable in today’s day and age in contrast to dogas which becomes rather “too deep” or “philosophical” for one to understand”.
These regional languages that one has should be kept close to oneself, they define us. While the British have left, what has not left us are their standards of beauty or intelligence. Understand how we can link this idea to different languages now dying down all over the world.

Instead of being embarrassed of speaking our own language we should feel pride in it. While we can talk English, our inner emotions will always remain in our own tongues. Famous Bollywood dialogues, the cuss words we use on our friends, old 90s Hindi music can never be placed at a lower pedestal or be replaced with any other thing.

Image Credits: The Whiteboard
Shivani Dadhwal
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It is a fact that Britain has been a country that had colonized many parts of the world, and the inhabitants of the present USA were actually British. These factors led to English becoming the global language that it is, today.

Language is an invention, quite possibly the most dynamic of things created by humankind because it encompasses all. Feeling a certain feeling, and then having the privilege of expressing it is something we all take for granted, but shouldn’t because it is the one thing every person that has ever lived has contributed to. Be it by adding new words into the language, passing it down generations, or simply by conversing and keeping the language alive.

Today’s world is one where there are no borders, anything and everything is accessible to those who want it. Such times call for a unifying method communication, and for better or for worse, English has emerged as that binding force. It is one language that is almost universally accepted and is spoken more than any other language in the world. A person from India and a person from Japan don’t have to learn both the languages (and that of any other area the other person is from) rather, everyone speaks English.

However, in recent times, English has unwittingly become a symbol of how ‘educated’ or ‘learned’ a person is. People tend to not pay heed to what a person is saying if it’s in a local dialect.

In institutional spaces, too, people tend to listen to just about anything, provided it is accompanied by good oratory skills and, of course, English. There is a sort of separation between those who are familiar with the language and those who are not.

As a result, many people who may know the science of things, get discouraged and their genius remains undiscovered. They will refrain from raising up their hands and talking about issues that concern them due to this unsaid barrier.

When English gives us a common identity, it can also rob us of our basic one. Due to the glamorization of English, we are not getting familiar with our respective dialects and feel a sense of shame in using it to converse.

What can be done in the world which has turned into a ‘global village’ is that we may embrace English, but also not forget to water our heritage and never to undermine those who don’t speak it.


Feature Image Credits: Plato-Edu

Maumil Mehraj

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